* I – Abstract
* II – PCN-NCP network activity
* III – ELAC ideological and organizational rooting
Analysis of Kornel Sawinski / Part 1 /
English version for the CEREDD / 2013 02 14 /
Centre Européen de Recherche et d’Etude sur la Démocratie Directe /
European Centre for Research and Studies on Direct Democracy/
Translation: Maria Walczak /
Published in Journal of Polish Naval Academy in Gdynia (in Colloquium of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences) /
Report originally presented to the “Congress of Polish Geopoliticians” in November 2011.
The original polish version http://publikacjeonline.wnhis.iq.pl/numery/V/KS.pdf
index http://publikacjeonline.wnhis.iq.pl/numery/V/SpisTresci.pdf page 65 /
This article is an attempt to analyze the phenomenon of a network organization, whose establishment has been directly connected with the political situation in Libya since the middle of February 2011. The protests that took place in Libya were the result of successful (overthrow of the legal authorities) riots in Tunisia and Egypt. The riots were significantly and perhaps even decisively inspired and controlled from outside, with the use of a network war technology, which is part of ‘soft power’ weapons (1). The supporters of the Libyan system, the people who sympathize with the direct democracy, in the manner of the Libyan Jamahiriya also use this weapon while leading information wars in defence of their axioms .
A manifestation of this is undoubtedly a net ELAC, created significantly on the basis of MEDD-RCM ( Movement for European Direct Democracy – Revolutionary Committees Movement,).
The analysis of ELAC network’s activity requires taking into consideration a few facts that distinguish it from activities of official government and non government organizations, which possess much more financial, political and intelligence support.
- On the one hand, it is a decentralized organization, on the other hand, it is based on
a strictly centralized structure of the Party PCN-NCP (Parti Communautaire National-européen – National-European Communitarian Party (2));
- it is a grass-roots organization created on the basis of spontaneous reactions;
- it is a non-profit organization ( its activity involves no bonus );
- it is based on officially available web social portals such as Facebook or Twitter and websites.
To keep the chronology of narrative and also to understand the essence of the phenomenon of ELAC it has been necessary to carry out an analysis of the activity of the political party PCN-NCP the social-political movement MEDD-RCM in the context of their most important network ventures.
ELAC – Euro-Libyan Action Committees, European communitarism, Muammar Gaddafi, Luc MICHEL, geopolitics, information warfare, network organizations.
II – PCN-NCP NETWORK ACTIVITY
While analising ELAC phenomenon it is important to take into account PCN-NCP political activity, an its participation in information network warfare in the past.
In the mainstream media as well as in the other anti-system groups media, charges appear that PCN is just a minor group acting only in the Frechspeaking countries. This is not correct mainly because of the transnational nature of the party, obviously dissociating themselves from any activity at the ‘micro-national’ level. Since the start in 1983, the party has been a unique example of a small organization which has proven its political effectiveness, disproportionate to their capability.
As the history of most small political groups shows, they usually disappear from the political scene after 5-10 years, sometimes earlier, often after one term of office. This is because they cannot meet with response or they can be ineffective. As a result, the activists start feeling burnt out and exhausted (3). The disinformation campaign led by some opponents of PCN resulted in including in ”The Dictionary of Right-Wing Political Groups and National Political Groups since 1945 up to the Present Day” published in Paris by L’Harmattan, information about the death of the leader of the party, Luc MICHEL. (4) Biographical information about Luc MICHEL in Wikipedia is mostly based on this dictionary. Jean Pierre Vandermissen, the deputy secretary-general of the PCN-NCP, PCN administrative director in France, a former activist of Jean Thiriart organization “The Young Europe”, commented that mistake or intentional disinformation as follows: “The tall tales concerning Luc MICHEL are the height of idiocy. The amount of published nonsense about Luc MICHEL can really surprise. His name was substituted for Luc Jouret, the leader of OTS (Translator’s note: Ordo Templi Satanis) who has never been a member of the PCN Organization. Our position concerning the struggle with far right-wing sects was totally ignored. This example is really significant and it should be connected with others”. (5)
Inanc Kutlu, the second deputy secretary-general of the PCN, the regional secretary of the PCN-AMKP / PCN Turkophonian Network, gives such a definition of the central axis of a campaign against PCN: “the media, of course, attack everything we try to protect, they are opposed to everything we represent and to our whole struggle, especially against racism, xenophobia, neo-fascism which we lead as the PCN Anti-Nazi Collective EUROPÄISCHE WIDERSTAND (Resistance Europeenne) (6) or cooperating with the great Russian anti-Nazi youth movement NASHI (‘Ours’). PCN-NCP, which represent ‘European nationalism’, have been shown as ‘extreme right’. Hiding the fact that our view, especially on Direct Democracy, is very progressive, means intentional disinformation. Some Africans, Arabs, Turks take part in our activities. I have been a good example of it, myself “ . (7)
While studying PCN achievements in the field of carrying on information wars, particular attention should be paid to campaigning in the defence of Yugoslavia and president Slobodan Milosevic from 1998 to 2004, and the defence of Iraq and its Ba’athist system has been led from 2003 up to the present day.
In the discourse of PCN, the upheavals inspired and supported by western secret services and nongovernmental organizations are called ‘colour revolutions’.
Luc MICHEL has been one of the first who indicated on an analogy between the events in Yugoslavia (as well as later ‘colour revolutions’ in Eastern Europe, mainly in Ukraine and Georgia) and the so called ‘Arab Spring’, which has been organized in accordance to a similar scenario. That scenario is, according to Luc MICHEL, as follows: “so called ‘colour revolutions’ are a series of blows delivered mainly on the occasion of elections and also social unrest. Behind such operations are organizations which call themselves nongovernmental but in reality they are camouflaged American governmental organizations. Under the guise of promotion of democracy they provide financial support for opposition in the countries which the USA want to destabilize”. (8)
An important role in organizing ‘colour revolutions’, after the successful debut, that is overthrowing president Milosevic, plays an international organization ‘OTPOR’ (Serbian: Resistance). The organization promotes coups “without violence’ which practically appears to be a delusion. The Americans turned the ‘OTPOR’ into an international school CANVAS, where ‘revolutionary technique’ and ‘destabilization of regimes’ (9) have been taught. Since the bombardment and coup in Yugoslavia, PCN consider themselves a specific anti-Otpor while defending political systems of assaulted states. On 25th March 2000 during a meeting in Milano (Italy) to support Yugoslavia, Luc MICHEL spoke: “Belgrade is Washington’s enemy number one in Europe. Yugoslavia under Milosevic is also one of the “rogue states” together with Libya, Iraq or North Korea. Madeleine Albright tirelessly alarms about them. Why so much hatred? Where does such fury against this small isolated country stem from ? The answer is easy. At present, national-communist Yugoslavia is, apart from Belarus under the president Lukashenko, the only free country in Europe. Only the Yugoslavian government and the government of Belarus have not surrendered to Washington. Milosevic and Lukashenko are not submissive to Yankee colonialism. It is Belgrade where the capital of free Europe today is. In Yugoslavia, armed struggle for liberation of the whole Europe has just began.” (10)
The struggle takes place, first of all, in the information space. Many PCN’s newsletters wrote about defence of socialist Yugoslavia and Milosevic, for example, “L’EUROPE COMMUNAUTAIRE”(11), “NATION EUROPE”(12) , “LA CAUSE DES PEUPLES”(13). The most numerous and active group in the Frenchspeaking countries as part of the “International Committee for Defence of Slobodan Milosevic” was the PCN environment. Special leaflets were published on this issue.(14) PCN leaders cooperated with Jacques Verges, the famous lawyer defending Slobodan Milosevic, which was an additional argument for media to attack the party.(15) Another important thing was a debate on a TV channel “PUBLIC SENAT”, which J.P. Vandermissen, L. MICHEL and J. Verges took part in. (16)
The essence of the defence of Ba’ahtist Iraq was creating support for IRAQ COMMITTEES (COMITES IRAK DE BASE in Frenspeaking countries) about the end of 2002. In 2002 a Brussels influent newspaper, the “LA LIBRE BELGIQUE” had to say that the Support for Iraq Committees were “the most clearly heard voice of unequivocal support for the Ba’ahtist resistance movement in Iraq” (17)
Support for Arabic socialism is not limited to Iraq only, the ‘ Support Committees’ cover Syria, as well. (18)
Because of Luc MICHEL’s support for socialist and anti-Zionist systems in the Middle East, MEMRI, the Middle East Media Research Institute ( which is liable on Tsahal, Israeli Armed Forces ) started an Internet campaign against him. (19)
III – REVOLUTIONARY COMMITTEES MOVEMENT (MCR) AND MOVEMENT FOR EUROPEAN DIRECT DEMOCRACY (MEDD)
- ELAC IDEOLOGICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL ROOTING
From time to time, media inform the public opinion in Western Europe and Russia about National-European Communitarian Party / PCN-NCP ( Parti Communautaire National-europeen) activity. Strangely though, there is a conspiracy of silence about Movement for European Direct Democracy – Revolutionary Committees Movement, MEDD-RCM (Mouvement Européen pour la Démocratie Directe-Mouvement des Comités Révolutionnaires ) political initiative animated by members of the party’s leadership. Fabrice Beaur ( PCN secretary-general ) stated that medias are only interested in campaigns against PCN. As for MEDD-RCM, the media in NATO member states use a different strategy: they dissemble the existence of the phenomenon.
“It is not a secret that MEDD-RCM acts within the conspiracy of silence. From the very start, in 1983-84, PCN has been a target for the press and media attack. Not only the NATO media but also far right-wings and left-wing websites reprove PCN because we are in direct competition to them. We represent a correct policy so we are dangerous from ethical point of view. We have not discredited ourselves so far, which often happened with other combatants.” (20)
To understand well the MEDD-RCM origin one should look back at Libya in the 1070s.
In the first period of the Libyan revolution, from 1969 to 1977 there was a classic revolutionary Nasserist party in type of a socialist party, the Arab Socialist Union. The System of the Libyan Jamahirija, in which all the political parties were removed (including the Arab Socialist Union), and the rules were based on the principles of Direct democracy, emerged in 1977. (21) Instead of a party there was the Revolutionary Committees Movement MCR. The “Green Academy” was the central ideological authority. It played the same role as the Ideology Department of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. It was also the ideological matrix for RCM. (22)
In the 1980 s Libya became an attractive power in the world anti-imperialist movement. Thus RCM appeared in many postcolonial countries in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Sympathy for RCM in Europe was not turned into any organized forms. Its representatives could be met in various environments, mainly among radical ecologists. PCN’s contacts through the Libyan Embassy in Brussels date back to an earlier time. A Belgian newspaper from that time “LE VIF” wrote in 1985 that: “ Jean Thiriart’s works were on the ambassador’s table” [that is] where journalist were received”.(23) In 1985, when Tripoli and Benghazi were bombed at the behest of President Reagan, PCN was organizing a poster campaign against the bombardment as an expression of solidarity with the Libyans in bigger towns in the Francophonian area . (24)MEDD-RCM came into being in 2004 as a result of the IIId World Convention of Revolutionary Committees Movement (RCM), which took place in Jansour ( a mucipality beside Tripoli) in September 2004. (25)“Revolutionary Committees of the Frenchspeaking area, which have gathered since 1997 activists from Belgium, France and Switzerland as well as Arabs, Turks and Africans living in these countries, will be used at creating a new network”. (26) European Committees acting up to 2004 autonomically and under various names, were integrated into one organization based in Brussels.
The main political goals were, first of all:
a) an activity for Direct democracy as an alternative for bankruptcy and corruption of pseudo parliamentary democracy,
b) exploration of European roots of Direct democracy (Swiss experience, Untouchable Robespierre’s from 1793 and so on) in order to ensure the synergy of these experiences with modern form of Direct democracy worked out by the Libyan revolution of Muammar Gaddafi”. (27)
Tripoli designated Luc MICHEL as a coordinator-general of the European network of MEDD-MCR.
An important moment in the process of crystallization MEDD-RCM structures was when the ‘5th European Summer University for Alternative, Green and Pacifist Movement’ was organized on 27-31 July 2005 in La Roche, Wallonia, Belgium. As part of the University, the first European Conference of MEDD-RCM was held. The conference, during which some delegates from Western and Eastern Europe and also some Libyans and Africans spoke, established “on one hand, fundamental rules of MEDD organization of activity, on the other hand, main ideological rules under which this activity will be carried on’. (28)
At the conference it was established that the gist of the MEDD-RCM ideology is to be a specific “European road to Direct democracy”. This position was different from most world sections of RCM who mechanically copied Libyan solutions.
Passing over in silence the existence of MEDD-RCM was caused by its organizational success and also by the fact that it was an organization which the Libyan leadership trust completely.
It resulted in creating a network in Russia and Europe, organizing symposia, congresses, fora, information days, summer schools in Europe and Libya. All that in the context of a small political organization must be undoubtedly seen as a success which the media of NATO members decided not to inform about. Ideological topics characteristic of PCN were transplanted into MEDD-RCM. This osmosis had an evolutionary nature. At the beginning, the term “Greater-Europe” did not appear in the RCM discourse, claims Fabrice Beaur citing the book “Gaddafi, starting point” by an Argentinian peronist Horacio Calderon. “It is about Africa, Latin America, Asia, the Arab World, there is absolutely nothing about Europe. Libyan RCM cited this book as far back as 1996”. (29)
Some elements of the PCN ideology (Greater United Europe) have been functioning in the RCM discourse since 1996. A number of publications in French, English, Arabic, Portuguese and Spanish corroborates it . (30)
In March 2007, the VIth International meeting of Direct democracy and the thought of Muammar Gaddafi supporters was held in the town of Sabha, southern Libya at the presence of Gaddafi himself. The meeting was organized on the occasion of thirtieth anniversary of Libyan Jamahirija (1977) under the banner: ‘Democracy of the 21st century. 30 years of governance of the people’. Apart from thousands of observers, there were 300 thinkers and scholars including Luc MICHEL, who represented MEDD-MCR and the CEREDD (European Centre of Research and Study of Direct Democracy – Brussels, Paris and Sofia ).
Luc MICHEL spoke twice at the conference. He presented opportunities of the development of Direct democracy in Europe as an alternative in the 21st century and also presented the political system of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic as a modern form of Direct democracy in the Eastern Europe. (31) After the conference, Luc MICHEL gave a big interview for the radio VOIX DE L’AFRIQUE (Voice of Africa). It circulated in many countries in many languages in Africa, Latin America by a Venezuelan radio SUR. In his speech, MICHEL presented some visions of the Direct democracy in Libya and opportunities of the development of Direct democracy in Europe and the whole world . (32)
In 2009, during the ‘World Meeting of the Green Book Supporters’ (l’Assemblee Mondiale des Partisans du Livre Vert, ASIPALV in French) Luc MICHEL gave a speech in which he concluded some geopolitical theses (“thinking in terms of continents”) and ideological inspirations by Yugoslavian socialism, the first period after the Bolshevik Revolution, Thiriart’s Communitarism and Direct democracy principles) . (33)
At the meeting organized in the Palace of People’s General Congress (the Libyan Parlement) there were 2000 delegates from 80 countries. (34)It was an important event for PCN because of the fact that Libyan MCR leadership had not invited any representation of political parties by principle.
Another event which should be mentioned is the VIth MEDD-RCM Convention on 5-7 February 2011 in Zawia (beside Tripoli). At the convention, there was a debate between Luc MICHEL and Rajab Boudabbous, director of the Libyan Green Academy, kind of ‘a chief ideologue of the Libyan political system’. The exchange of opinions showed many points of convergence between Libyan political system and solution suggested by MEDD. (35)
Inanc Kutlu claims that that convention was different from the earlier ones and resembled the congress of the Social Democratic Worker’s party in London in 1903 with the split into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. The Revolutionary Committees Movement split into socialist and liberal factions. (36) In the RCM as well as in the Libyan government there were two factions: conservative and socialist, and also liberal and pro-Western. It was at this conference that Luc MICHEL, basing his reflections on the experience from the past of the Eastern Europe pointed to a danger approaching to Libya, that is, a threat of “a colour revolution”. Many Libyans did not want to believe in this prophecy. “I have to say that it was taken with a laugh. Some said I was crazy. <<What’s up ? What is he talking about?>>. The Libyan had no clues to analyze, to understand what was going on”. (37)
As a result of the events which took place in early February 2011, the activity of Libyan RCM has been suspended.
NOTES / Part 1 :
(1) http://geopolitica.ru/Articles/1169/ , 2011.10.02; http://geopolitica.ru/Articles/1160/ , 2011.10.03.
(2) http://www.pcn-ncp.com/sindex.htm , 2011.09.02;
Karel Huybrechts et Luc Michel, La Longue Marche du PCN (1984-2004). A paraître fin 2004 dans la série «Les 20 Ans du PCN», the tapescript in the possession of the Author
(3) ENTRETIEN DE LUC MICHEL AVEC KORNEL SAWINSKI: JEAN THIRIART, LE P.C.N., LA GEOPOLITIQUE ET L’EURASIE, Les 50 Questions de l’Entretien, Notes & Renvois, the tapescript in the possession of the Author.
(4) J. Leclerq, DICTIONNAIRE DE LA MOUVANCE DROITISTE ET NATIONALE DE 1945 A NOS JOURS, L’Harmattan, Paris 2008.
(5) Quoted in: REGARDS SUR 50 ANS DE COMBAT POUR LA GRANDE-EUROPE ET LA REVOLUTION TRANSNATIONALE, Entretien de Karel Huybrechts, rédacteur en chef du Service de Presse du PCN (Bruxelles) (ancient cadre du PCE), Avec Jean-Pierre Vandermissen (Secrétaire-général adjoint du PCN, directeur administratif du PCN en France, ancien cadre de Jong-Europa), /w/: La Nation Européenne/ The European Nation/ La Nazione Europea,
(6) http://resistanceeuropeenne.online.fr/ , (2011.10.04.)
(7) Cyt. za: REGARDS SUR 50 ANS… Entretien de Karel Huybrechts Avec Inanc Kutlu (Secrétaire-général adjoint du PCN, secrétaire régional du PCN-AMKP / Réseau turcophone du PCN) PARTIE II, p. 3
(8) Interview De Luc Michel Par Fabrice Beaur. PCN-TV Moscou
(14 octobre 2011), A bâtons rompus sur: PCN, idéologie, praxis, perspectives
– Communautarisme européen – Résistance libyenne – Comités ELAC & ALAC – MEDD-MCR – Russie – Belarus – Transniestrie – Abkhazie – Grande-Europe – Eurasie – OTAN
– «Révolutions de couleur» – «printemps arabe» … En marge d’une Conférence régionale du MEDD-MCR et d’ELAC-RUSSIA organisée à Moscou le 14 octobre 2011, http://www.palestine-solidarite.org/interview.Luc_Michel.151111.htm (20.12.2011.)
(9) http://www.cafebabel.pl/article/37167/canvas-otpor-pora-pokojowa-rewolucja-marka-serbii.html , 2011.10.03.
(10) Quoted in : K. Huybrechts, L. Michel, La Longue Marche…, s. 47.
(11) L’EUROPE COMMUNAUTAIRE, L’Hebdo communautariste du PCN – Nr 3, Les USA en guerre contre les „Etats-Voyoux” – 6 août 1999, Nr 27, Nouvelles menaces de guerre: Offensive de l’OTAN à l’Est
(12) NATION EUROPE, L’Hebdo communautariste du PCN, Nr 31, Les SS de l’ OTAN, 21 avril 2000, n° 1- 23 Juillet 99, La Paix américaine c’est la Paix des cimetières.
(13) LA CAUSE DES PEUPLES, Pur un front unitaire quadricontinental contre l’impérialisme et l’exploitation, n° 5, juin 1999.
(14) SOLIDARITE MILOSEVIC, Bulletin d’ information du Comité International pour la Défense de Slobodan Milosevic, n° 1, decembre 2001.
(15) That was due to Jacques Verges’s ‘black legend’, http:/www.polityka.pl/swiat/tygodnikforum/2773251.obronca-zbrodniarzy.read , 2011.10.03.
(16) REGARDS SUR 50 ANS… Entretien de Karel Huybrechts Avec J. P. Vandermissen PARTIE I…, p.4
(17) G. Papy, „Des réseaux de soutien à la «résistance irakienne» en Belgique», LA LIBRE BELGIQUE, Bruxelles, 19-20 mars 2005;
Excerpts: "What kind of networks are they ? We can single out three kinds of them. Islamic radicals who operate, by nature, mainly in secret (…). Some, called <<Islamo-gauchistes>> (Translator’s note: pro Islam-ultra-leftists) represent another trend (…). The third tendency, possibly the most visible in Belgium, represents nationalists who support the Baath Party, the party of Saddam Hussein’s power. They created “Iraq Committees” and “Syria Committees” trying to join the antagonistic branches of this Arab national party. Their leader is Luc Michel, the leader of the National-European Communitarian party. Michel was (and some say he still has been) recognized as an ultra rightist. Today, however, an expert on such groups rejects this kind of classification and sees in Michel << a European nationalist>>, anti-Americanist, anti-zionist who is not anti-Semite. He, himself, introduces himself as a supporter of regimes hated by Washington: at present – Belarus and Syria; before – Iraq and Serbia. Luc Michel thinks that <<Iraqi resistance>> to the American occupation consists of the Baath party’s representatives in 90%. Referring to Izzat Ibrahim al Douri, the former number 2 of Saddam Hussein’s regime and a leader of <<nationalistic resistance movement>>, he also attacked radical islamists’ terrorist activities which harm the Baath party’s job".;
See: AL BA’ATH AL IRAQI sur le site officiel des Comités Irak De Base: http://comitesirak.free.fr/abai/index.htm , 2011.09.28.
(18) Sur les COMITES SYRIE, cfr :Defendre La Forteresse Ba’athiste Syrienne, PCN-INFO, 29 mars 2005, Excerpt : « PCN endorses creating << Syria Committees >> which are to lead information struggle in the most important battle. Our American-Zionist enemies are not wrong because <<Syrian>> collaborants from RSP << a group of <<Syrian>> oppositionists based in the USA and financed by CIA) have attacked the <SYRIA COMMITTEES>> since the very beginning, publishing a very trenchant statement entitled << The Baathist propaganda opens its office in France>>. Our president was again attacked and he seems to be a particularly privileged as for Zionist aggression: since November he has been attacked in the various media hundreds of times”. http://www.pcn-ncp.com/PIH/pih-050329.htm , 2011.09.27.
(19) Dr Nimrod Rapaheli (Senior Analyst of MEMRI' s Middle East Economic Studies Program): “Anti-American Baath Activities In Paris”, MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis Series-No.197, November 19: “With the defeat of Saddam Hussein’s regime on 9th April 2003 the ruling Baath party was outlawed in Iraq: a committee was also established for debaathization of the country. All the same, the propaganda machine, it seems, found a new seat in Paris, France, where anti-American opinions have been spread regularly in three languages: English, French and Spanish. No wonder, the Baathist propaganda uses the expression <<resistance movement>> to be associated with the fight against the Nazi occupation of France during world war II (…). One of the bulletins (entitled “Al-Baath Al Iraqi”) extends the project of resistance movement against American-Zionist imperialism in Iraq to other fronts, <<especially in the occupied Palestine and Europe, where the Yank domination is challenged today>>. They agree with Che Guevara, who claimed that “imperialism has got a head, which are the USA and which has to be cut off>>”. http://memri.org/bin/latestnews.cgi?ID=IA19704 , 2011.09.27.
(20) Quoted in: Regards Sur 50… Entretien de Karel Huybrechts, Avec Fabrice Beaur (Secrétaire-général du PCN) PARTIE II…, p. 2.
(21) See: M. M. Ayoub, Islam and the Third Universal Theory: the religious thought of Mu’ammar al-Qadhdhafi, London 1987, p. 31.
(22) Publié sur /Issued on : PCN-INFO HEBDO/ PCN-NCP’ S WEEKLY, 2005.12.17 Service de Presse du PCN, PCN-NCP Press Office, Tripoli / December 10-12, 2005: Round Table For Personalities Coming From French-Speaking Europe, Organized By "The Academy Of The Jamahiryan Though", the typescript in the possession of the Author
(23) REGARDS SUR 50… Entretien de Karel Huybrechts, Avec Fabrice Beaur PARTIE II…, p. 4.
(24) L. Michel, PCN-NCP’S NEWS, issue 777 october 25, 2003.
(25) Publié sur /Issued on: PCN-INFO HEBDO/ PCN-NCP’ S WEEKLY 2004.09.27 Service de Presse du PCN, PCN-NCP Press Office. Third Convention Of The RCM – Libya, September 2004: Unification Of The Network Of The "Revolutionnary Committees" In Europe: Creation Of The " Movement For The European Direct Democracy", the typescript in the possession of the Author.
(28) Quoted in: PCN-INFO HEBDO, Edition spéciale du 2 août 2005, Communiqué de Presse du MEDD: «1ère Conférence Europeenne Du MEDD-MCR» (La Roche – Wallonie – 30 Juillet 2005), the material in the possession of the Author.
(29) Quoted in REGARDS SUR 50 ANS… Entretien de Karel Huybrechts avec Fabrice Beaur PARTIE II…, p. 6.
(31) Sebha (Libya) – 28 February To 1st March 2007: Luc Michel Lecturer To The 6th International Reunion On “Direct Democracy And The Thought Of Muammar Al-Gathafi”, the typescript in the possession of the Author.
(32) http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xi2lns_pcn-tv-1-interview-de-luc-michel-a-la-radio-internationale-la-voix-de-l-afrique-a-tripoli-e-1er-mar_news , 2011.11.02;
http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xi2lw6_pcn-tv-2-interview-de-luc-michel-a-la-radio-internationale-la-voix-de-l-afrique-a-tripoli-libye-le_news#rel-page-1 , 2011.11.03.
(33) Discours, au nom des Délégations du Continent européen, au Meeting d’ouverture de la Première Assemblée mondiale de l’ « Association Internationale des Partisans du Livre Vert » (Tripoli, Libye, 25 octobre 2009), the typescript in the possession of the Author.
(34) REGARDS SUR 50 ANS… Entretien de Karel Huybrechts Avec J. P. Vandermissen PARTIE II …, p. 6.
(35) http://www.elac-committees.org/2011/09/09/%E2%80%9C6th-forum-of-the-movement-for-european-direct-democracy%E2%80%9D-medd-rcm-ibrahim-moussa-rajab-boudabbous-luc-michel/ (2011.09.28.)
(36) Regards Sur 50 Ans… Entretien de Karel Huybrechts Avec Inanc Kutlu PARTIE I…, p. 2.
(37) Quoted in: Interview de Luc Michel par Fabrice Beaur . PCN-TV Moscou…
Pic : poster of HUNGARIAN ELAC (ELAB), april 2011 (“Libye 2011, notre Guerre d’Espagne).
Luc MICHEL avec le Dr Rajah Bouddabous, idéologue du Socialisme jamahiriyen à la Vie Convention du MEDD-RCM (Zawiah, Libye, 5-7 février 2011).